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How to use biogas dregs to grow edible fungi

Published: 2024-06-24 Author: mysheen
Last Updated: 2024/06/24, How to use biogas dregs to grow edible fungi

Biogas residue has comprehensive nutrients, loose texture, good moisture retention performance and moderate pH value. It is a good culture material for artificial cultivation of edible fungi. The culture material after planting edible fungi can also be used as feed for pigs or cattle. Pigs and cow dung can be used as raw materials for biogas fermentation.

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus

1. Seasonal arrangements. High-temperature mushroom, generally stacked in mid-April, sowing in early May, covering soil in late May, fruiting in mid-June, harvesting in August; autumn mushroom generally stacked in late September, sowing in October, fruiting in November, harvesting in April of the following year.

2. Raw material selection. 2400 kg straw, 2400 kg biogas residue, 50 kg bean cake powder, 40 kg urea, 50 kg calcium superphosphate, 50 kg gypsum powder, 50 kg lime and 25 kg calcium carbonate are used for planting 100 square meters of mushrooms.

3. Pre-fermentation (batch fermentation). The stacking time is generally arranged 25 days before planting, and the straw is watered or soaked to absorb sufficient moisture 2~3 days before stacking. (1) Building a pile. First lay a layer of straw 2 meters wide and 0.3 meters thick, and then lay a layer of biogas residue 0.02 meters thick. In this way, one layer of straw and one layer of biogas residue are piled up, and water is supplemented at the side of the pile, and urea, calcium superphosphate and other auxiliary materials are evenly added. After stacking 10~12 layers, the stack height is about 1.8 meters. Pile the top of the pile into a turtle-back shape, so that the pile side vertical, and then use a straw curtain or film to cover it to prevent rain. (2) Turn over the pile. According to the weather and the temperature change of the pile, the pile is usually turned 4 times, the interval time is 4, 4, 3 and 2 days respectively, the biogas residue and straw are mixed and turned evenly, and the external material is turned to the middle. Water should be supplemented for the first time; for the second time, the pile should be reduced to 1.8 meters and 1.6 meters high, and 1/3 gypsum powder should be added; on the day before indoor fermentation, 0.5% dichlorvos should be evenly sprayed around the pile and the site, and sealed with plastic film for 6~12 hours, so that the pile has a slight fertilizer taste, straw is moderately ripe, tough, not easy to break, soft and shiny; the water content is about 62%, and the pH value is 7.5~8.

4. Post fermentation (indoor fermentation). (1) Feed stacking. After the fermentation, shake the culture materials inside and outside, mix them evenly on the mushroom bed, and close the doors and windows tightly. (2) The culture medium is heated. After the material enters the room, the second day begins to heat, and the room temperature reaches 60℃ in about 10 hours, and maintains for more than 7 days. Then wait until the temperature naturally drops to about 50℃, keep it for 5~7 days, and change air for 15 minutes every 3~10 hours. (3) After fermentation, the culture medium should be full of white beneficial microorganism hyphae. And requirements to achieve some conditions: no ammonia flavor, sweet bread flavor, dark brown, soft and elastic, and non-sticky hands, water content of about 62%, pH 7.2~7.5.

5. Flipping. Spread the culture material evenly on each layer of bed frame, pick out impurities, turn over the material, mix loose and smooth the edge, so as to achieve uniform thickness, moderate tightness and smooth material surface.

6. Sowing. Sowing can be carried out when the material temperature drops below 28 DEG C. 1.2~1.5 bottles of "grain seed" strains are required for each square meter. The sowing method: mixed sowing and surface sowing method is adopted. First, 1/2 of the strains are evenly spread in the material, then the material surface is gently patted with a cleaning tool to make the seeds fall into the material layer, and then the remaining strains are evenly spread on the material surface. The tightness is moderate. After sowing, the mushroom house is cleaned and kept clean.

7. Germ period management. The next day, close the doors. Ventilation shall be carried out in the morning and evening, and the length of time shall be determined by the temperature. Generally, ventilation shall not be carried out below 25℃, proper ventilation shall be carried out above 28℃, and ventilation shall be strengthened above 30℃. Under normal circumstances, ventilation 1~2 hours a day, so that the germination of bacteria growth. The hypha will grow to full layer after 25~30 days when the ventilation is increased gradually on the 5th day after sowing.

8. Soil cover management. Every 100 square meters of planting area needs 3 cubic meters of pond mud and about 500 jin of coarse rice bran. Coarse rice bran was soaked in 0.5% lime water one day before soil covering. When covering the soil, mix the treated rice bran with pond mud thoroughly. Mix immediately and sprinkle on the surface of the material to a thickness of 2.5 cm. Ventilate day and night. Generally in about 7 days, small mushroom buds can be seen, at this time do not need to spray water, just keep the air humidity at 90%~95%, after 3~4 days bed surface will appear a large number of mushrooms, this can be harvested.

cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus

Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the fungi with the largest cultivated area and highest yield in China. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with biogas residue has high success rate, stable yield and good economic benefit.

1. Seasonal arrangements. The planting and growing period of high temperature type Pleurotus ostreatus is from April to August, and that of medium and low temperature type Pleurotus ostreatus is planted in August and harvested in June of the next year.

2. Raw material selection. The raw materials for Pleurotus ostreatus come from a wide range of sources, such as crops, corncobs, peanut shells, sawdust, straw, mushroom residue, bagasse, leaves, various manures, biogas residue, edible mushroom residue, etc. Raw material requirements: fresh, dry, no mildew, no debris.

3. Scientific ingredients. 53 percent of crop straw (such as corncob, sawdust, straw, etc.), 30 percent of biogas residue or edible mushroom residue, 10 percent of rice sugar or wheat bran, 2 percent of peanut bran, 1 percent of gypsum powder, 2 percent of lime powder, 2 percent of compound fertilizer, and 1: 1.25 of material and water ratio.

4. Bag it. mixing the raw materials evenly and packing in polyethylene plastic bags of 22cm * 45cm * 10cm, sterilizing under normal pressure for 10h.

5. Hair germ management. After inoculation, indoor and outdoor bacteria can be generated, the highest temperature should not exceed 28℃, to check the bag temperature frequently, such as higher than 28℃, immediately turn the pile, do not let the high temperature burn mycelium. Under normal conditions, hyphae can grow into bags in 25~30 days.

6. fruiting management. Pay attention to ventilation during fruiting period, keep no dead angle in ventilation, and give certain scattered light. until it grows.

cultivated fungus

Traditional cultivation of Auricularia auricula with Geng wood requires a lot of wood and destroys ecological balance. With the increasing shortage of forestry resources in China, the production of Auricularia auricula has also been restricted. The biogas residues and agricultural and forestry crop leftovers are adopted to cultivate agaric, the raw material source is wide, the production cost is low, the cycle is short, the biological efficiency is high, and the ecological benefit is good; and the leftovers after cultivation can be used as fermentation raw materials of a biogas digester or continuously used for planting other edible fungi after bags are broken.

1. Cultivation season. The optimum temperature for mycelium growth and fruiting body formation of Auricularia auricula was 22~28℃ and 20~28℃ respectively. The optimum growth period of Auricularia auriculata was April to June, bagging and inoculation time was January to March. The best growing season of autumn ear is September to November, bagging and inoculation should be arranged in July to August.

2. Mix and bag. 50% of rice straw (bagasse or corncob) or miscellaneous sawdust, 30% of biogas residue, 15% of wheat bran, 1% of sucrose, 2% of lime and 2% of calcium superphosphate are fully mixed and then 55 - 60% of water is added. Then, put it in a plastic bag with a diameter of 17 cm and a length of 45~50 cm. After bagging, the bag should be compacted and tied tightly, otherwise it is not conducive to inoculation and easy to infect miscellaneous bacteria.

3. Sterilization. Generally, atmospheric sterilization is adopted. The atmospheric sterilization stove is different from place to place. No matter what kind of sterilization stove is used, all bag materials in the cylinder must reach 100℃, and then continue sterilization for 10~12 hours.

4. Vaccination. Move the sterilized bacteria bags to a room that has been cleaned and disinfected in advance, and the height of the well-shaped stack generally does not exceed 12 layers. After the bag is cooled, it can be disinfected and inoculated. Three checks must be made before inoculation: check whether the strains are pure white and pollution-free, and disinfect the strains bag by bag. Second, check whether the inoculation room meets the requirements. III. Check whether the vaccinated workers wear overalls or clean clothes and masks, and whether they speak during vaccination. The key points of post-inoculation management were heat preservation, light protection and ventilation. Generally cultured for 30~40 days, when the mycelium penetrates the bacteria bag, it can enter the ear management period.

5. Out of ear management. Choose a place with sufficient water source and ventilation to build a shed, and set up a shelf for cultivation in the shed. Put the bacteria bag on the rack, cut the film with a blade about 2~4 holes about 1 cm "V" shape, and then cover the film to moisturize and bud. Keep air humidity before ear base formation to avoid high temperature and bud opening. When the ear base forms open leaves, in order to make the fungus fully grow, the management should be mainly based on moisture, spraying water 2 to 3 times a day, alternating high and low humidity. After harvesting the fungus, water should be stopped for 2~3 days.

6. Harvesting and processing. When the ear piece fully unfolds, the edge begins to roll, the ear stem becomes small and white seed powder can be seen on the ventral surface, then it can be harvested. After harvesting, Auricularia auricula is piled up for 5~8 hours, and its hair is longer and whiter, and then rinsed and dried.

 
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