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Integrated Control techniques of Edible Mushroom pests

Published: 2024-05-18 Author: mysheen
Last Updated: 2024/05/18, Integrated Control techniques of Edible Mushroom pests

Edible fungus is the leading agricultural industry in Lishui. The annual output of edible fungi accounts for 1x3 of the national total, and the total output value of edible fungi accounts for about 45% of the total agricultural output value of the city. However, with the continuous expansion of planting area and the increase of planting years, the harm of edible fungus pests is becoming more and more serious, the light ones affect the yield and quality, the serious ones cause no harvest and seriously affect the production of edible fungi. According to the investigation, mosquitoes, flies, moths, mites and slugs are the main pests of edible fungi in our city, and the occurrence is the most serious in spring and autumn. The practical experience of prevention and control for many years is introduced as follows:

1. Give priority to prevention and control at source.

1.1 site selection. The cultivation room of edible fungi should be far away from warehouses, feedlots, garbage dumps and other places. The annual cultivation of edible fungi requires the matching of three rooms of inoculation, cultivation and mushroom production. The inoculation room and culture room should be far away from the mushroom production site, and the sunny, ventilated and dry room should be chosen. The orientation of the house is best in the east-west direction; no shelter is left in front of the windows on the east and west sides to allow the sun to shine fully.

Windows and doors should be fitted with screen.

1.2 the site is cleared. Do a good job in the environmental hygiene of the cultivation sites to prevent the breeding of insect pests. The new and old bacterial bags in the cultivation room must be separated and stored separately, and must not be mixed, so as to avoid the transmission of diseases and pests, so that the diseases and insects of the old bacterial bags are transferred to the new bacterial bags, and the cultivation tools should be used separately. When cultivating in the open field, it is necessary to remove the residual plants in the cultivation site and the nearby litter, rotten grass and masonry tiles, kill insects in the field if necessary, and dig trapping pits or circular ditches to prevent termites.

1.3 Drug prophylaxis. The old cultivation room with serious disease should be fumigated by fumigating with 80 ml formalin per cubic meter and fumigating in 40 grams of potassium permanganate. The container containing potassium permanganate is deep and the volume is more than 10 times larger than formalin. The cultivation room was closed during fumigation. After 2 days, the doors and windows were opened for ventilation for 24 hours, and then the bacteria bags were piled into the culture room. It can also be fumigated with sulfur, with a dosage of 5 g / m3, sealed for 48 hours, and then fed in 2 days.

2. Agricultural prevention and control according to the specific conditions

2.1 entrapment. The positive tendency of pests is used to trap and kill. For example, mites are very effective in trapping and killing with rapeseed cake. Take several pieces of gauze, sprinkle a layer of freshly fried rapeseed cake powder on the gauze, evenly spread it on the mushroom rack, the mites will gather on the gauze, and then soak the gauze in thick lime water, the mites will be killed, and the acaricidal effect can reach more than 90% for several times in a row. Places without rapeseed cake can also be fumigated with dichlorvos dipped in cotton balls, that is, cotton balls are dipped in 50% dichlorvos, placed in a zigzag arrangement under the mushroom rack every 70 cm or so, or hung at one end of the mushroom bag, and covered with wet gauze on the mushroom stick, mites smell the medicine, are drilled out of the material and glued to the wet gauze, and then the wet gauze covered with mites is immersed in thick lime water, and the acaricidal effect is good several times. For phototactic pests such as mosquitoes and moths, you can use black light or energy-saving lamps to trap and kill 0.1% dichlorvos in the water basin under the lamp, and the pests will be killed as soon as they fall into the basin; or hang the armyworm board in the strong light and apply 40% polypropylene viscose on the armyworm board with a validity period of up to 2 months.

2.2 flooding. When the water immersion method is used to control insect pests, attention must be paid to the cultivation bag (block) without pollution and miscellaneous bacteria, and the block cultivation should ensure that the mycelia grow well, and the mycelium will not disperse after soaking for 3 hours, otherwise the bacteria will disperse after water immersion, although the purpose of killing pests has been achieved, but the production benefit will be lost. The operation method is as follows: the bottle and bag planting can inject water into the bottle and bag, and the block planting can soak the cultivation block into the water to press the weight, so that the worm body is immersed in water to cause anoxia, and the larvae will die and float after soaking for 3 hours. after soaking, the bottle and bag drain the water and put it back to the original place.

2.3 pick and treat. Actively do a good job of pest detection, to the occurrence of insect pests, to achieve timely extermination. Some pests have special habits, such as mosquito larvae have the habit of silking, cover the mushroom buds with silk, live in groups in the net, and these pests can be caught artificially. The gall midge has the habit of larval reproduction, and more than 20 small larvae can be produced in one larva. The gall mosquito is small and afraid of drying. If the bacterial bag with insect pests is exposed in the sun for 1 hour or sprinkled with lime powder, the insect will dry and die, which can reduce the population density. In addition, some Lepidoptera larvae are very large and colorful when they are mature, which can be easily found in mushroom gathering and management and can be captured and destroyed at any time. Some larvae leave creeping traces to look for and capture along the tracks.

3. Close monitoring and chemical control

The use of drugs for edible fungi should be strictly controlled, and the use of highly toxic and highly toxic pesticides and sensitive pesticides of edible fungi should be strictly prohibited so as not to cause pesticide residues and drug damage of edible fungi and cause unnecessary losses. When medication is necessary, edible fungi should also be harvested before medication.

Mites can choose 1.8% mites 5 ml and 3% Mobilang 10 ml or 10% an Lubao 10 ml, spray or soak the bag, spray 60 kg of water, soak the bag with 120 kg of water. The mushroom body is picked off before spraying, and then sprayed; in the soaking bag, the pest-infested bacterial bag is put into the prepared liquid, and after the bacterial bag absorbs enough water, it is picked up and placed vertically, and after the excess water is discharged, it is put on the mushroom rack for mushroom production management. This method is most suitable for the prevention and control of insect pests in the later stage of mushroom emergence, which not only controls the insect pests, but also supplements the lack of water in the bacterial bag; the occurrence of mushroom mosquitoes and fecal mosquitoes can spray 500 times of trichlorfon; if gall mosquitoes occur greatly, phoxim can be sprayed 500 times; when the damage of jumping insects is serious, 500 times dichlorvos can be sprayed, but it should be noted that Pleurotus ostreatus is very sensitive to dichlorvos, and drug damage may occur when the concentration is slightly higher.

Fumigation with aluminum phosphide has a good control effect on mosquitoes, jumpers, slugs and other pests in mushroom shed (room). Specific measures are: eye mushroom mosquitoes, feces mosquitoes, fungus mosquitoes and jumping insects, slugs and other pests per cubic meter with 3 tablets (9.9 grams), gall mosquitoes per cubic meter with 10 tablets (33 grams for fumigation, mushroom shed (room) should be airtight, operators should wear gas masks, must be carried out in accordance with operating procedures, after fumigation mushroom room should be closed for 48 hours, and then ventilated for 23 hours before entering. Aluminum phosphide decomposes after absorbing water in the air and releases phosphine, which has strong penetrating power and can kill pests on the surface and inside of the fungus, but has no effect on the growth of mycelium and fruiting body, and there is no residual poison in the mushroom.

 
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