What are the methods to promote the rapid germination of flower seeds?
Promoting the rapid germination of flower seeds is a headache for many people. Today, I would like to share with you what are the ways to promote the rapid germination of flower seeds.
There are many propagation methods of flowers, including sowing, cutting, ramet, striping and grafting, among which the method of sowing and propagation is simple, the reproduction quantity is large, the root system of seedlings is complete and strong, the growth is robust, and the life span is long. For different kinds of flowers, due to their different seed coat structure and physiological mechanism and other reasons, the germination period of sown seeds is also different, some can germinate in a few days, some need months or even years. For example, lotus seeds with impervious seed coat, deeply buried in the soil, dormant period can be up to a thousand years, once the seed coat damage, water into the seed embryo can immediately germinate. In cultivation, the characteristics of long-term dormant seeds will bring inconvenience to sowing and raising seedlings, so artificial germination is needed to shorten the dormant period of seeds and promote rapid germination.
The methods to promote the rapid germination of flower seeds are as follows:
1. Immersion treatment: for seeds with short dormant period and easy germination, such as Bauhinia and Pearl Plum, soak the seeds with warm water (40-60 ℃) or cold water for 1-2 days before sowing. In addition, increasing the water temperature (such as soaking in 90 ℃ water for the first time and cooling it naturally for 24 hours) can soften and absorb water from some colloidal and waxy seed coats, and then germinate.
2. Low temperature treatment: for flowers cultivated in the open field in the north, some seeds need to be treated with low temperature (0-10 ℃) for a certain time in order to promote post-ripening and break the dormancy of seed embryos and germinate. Mix the seeds with sand with a humidity of 60% (that is, the sand that can be squeezed into a ball by hand and then spread after letting go), then put it in a plastic bag, tie the mouth tightly, place it in a flowerpot, and then bury the pot in an open field 40-60 cm deep. You can also put the seeds in a refrigerator of 3-5 ℃ for 60-90 days, take out the seeds in spring and sow them directly.
3. Variable temperature treatment: some flower seeds, such as tassel, peony, peony, etc., have the habit of double dormancy of radicle and Hypocotyl, that is, the radicle needs to go through a high temperature stage of 25-32 ℃ for 1-2 months or more before it can germinate after breaking dormancy, but at this time the Hypocotyl is still dormant, it takes 1-3 months to break dormancy and sprout under the condition of 3-5 ℃. For this kind of seeds, after mixing with wet sand before sowing, after a certain period of high temperature. Then transfer to low temperature in order to promote seed germination in a short time after sowing.
4. The reason of not germinating after treatment and the matters needing attention in the process of seed treatment: when the seed is treated by water immersion, it is necessary to change the water frequently so that there is enough oxygen in the water, and the lack of oxygen will cause the death of the seed embryo. In addition, the time of soaking seeds with too high water temperature (60-90 ℃) should not be too long, within half an hour to 1 hour, and then keep the water temperature below 40 ℃, otherwise the seed embryos are also easy to die. When treated at low temperature, the seeds must be mixed with wet sand. The sand is too dry in the treatment, and it is not easy to emerge after sowing. In variable temperature treatment or freezing treatment, it is often difficult for seeds to emerge after sowing because there is not enough time in high temperature period or freezing period.