09 EU Climate Governance: contemporary Restoration and Innovation of ─ Montado Adjustment from Climate crisis to Regional transition

Published: 2024-05-18 Author: mysheen
Last Updated: 2024/05/18, 09 EU Climate Governance: contemporary Restoration and Innovation of ─ Montado Adjustment from Climate crisis to Regional transition


/ he Hanyu / tr. by Phil Newell)

The word Montado may not be unfamiliar to those who follow the Liyama initiative and the economy under the forest. It is derived from Portuguese and is called dehesa in Spanish. It refers to the traditional mixed agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry or multi-functional woodland that prevails in the Ibili Peninsula in the southwest of the Mediterranean Sea. Its type, products and management patterns can be adjusted with geographical location, altitude, man-made and cultural activities. Therefore, how to combine scientific methods to study the advantages and disadvantages of various models, and find the best management practices to promote rural economy and biodiversity. Continue to attract attention from all walks of life.

However, what few people know is that although Portugal ranks first in cork production and export volume in the world, such a diversified forest production system is actually experiencing the severe challenges of industrial depression and market competition. The following will introduce the experience of the Montado project and how to alleviate the problem of industrial depression through climate adjustment.

In the face of the multiple attacks of extreme weather, market competition and an aging population, how should the countryside deal with itself?

Montado and dehesa mixed forest agriculture and animal husbandry system, the main species are Yushu, oak, oak and other corks, providing wood, mushrooms, forage grass, honey, and can use acorns and other forest fruits as animal feed, and use the forest horizontal and vertical space to operate cattle and pig grazing, mushroom collection, forage planting, tourism and other industries.

Areas that continue to implement Montado have almost become synonymous with poverty.

With the establishment of the European Union, the movement of transnational population has become easier, rural population outflow and aging, changes in industrial patterns and other problems have turned declining Montado and land converted into a single agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry into a common phenomenon of desertification or abandonment. Villages dominated by small and medium-sized farms are limited by economic scale and capital, and once they are faced with environmental and market changes, they often have to bear serious shocks and losses. Many small and medium-sized farms would rather abandon their land than pay more compensation. The social and demographic problems arising from the serious decline of rural industries are also daily in the rural areas of the Iberian Peninsula and are not unique to Japan or Taiwan.

Behind the decline of Montado, it has not only drastically changed the landscape and habitats of animals and plants in the Mediterranean, threatened the continuation of endangered species of conservation animals inhabiting woodlands, such as the Iberian lynx and Spanish king eagle, but also greatly reshaped the relationship between residents and rural industry and local society, but also means that the environmental knowledge and actions accumulated over the years by the ancient economic activity of Montado It is difficult to sustain with the reduction of area day after day. Many EU and related ecological experts are quite concerned about how to maintain Montado activities and area, and mediate the needs of rural livelihoods and ecological conservation.

Fig. 1 Montado combines agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry. Diversified production models can not only improve soil fertility and resistance to diseases and insect pests, but also reduce the vulnerability of farms to climate uncertainty. (cited from the demonstration plan p. 6 of the L1 pilot Montado integrated management system) is climate change a crisis or a turnaround? Synaesthesia connection in climatic regions

Unexpectedly, climate change brings a new possibility to the promotion of Montado. Many farmers have observed that in the management of modern unitary forest species, animal husbandry and agricultural products, when they encounter elusive heat waves, forest fires, extreme precipitation, plant diseases and insect pests, the existing rules of thumb are not only unresponsible. it also makes the risk difficult to disperse and suffer heavy losses. On the contrary, it is the traditional Montado farms that have the opportunity to disperse the impact of climate change through diversified utilization and management adjustment, and keep the losses within affordable limits as far as possible.

In addition, the differences in regional climate impacts in the same climatic zone also arouse farmers' awareness of climate adjustment and the willingness to try to restore Montado. Some Portuguese farmers have noted that because the geographical location of the Spanish mixed agro-forestry and animal husbandry system is more affected by westerly winds, the climate problems encountered by Portuguese agriculture occur earlier, the phenomenon is more extreme and the impact is more severe.

Early prevention of the sense of crisis in the same situation in rural Spain has led to opportunities for cooperation with local farms.

The immediate question is: how to effectively increase the benefits of environmental conservation, change the long-established modern agricultural management mode, and gradually return to Montado management mode and area, while also taking into account the livelihood of farms and regional socio-economic needs, and achieve the goal of building climate adaptation capacity for a long time?

When traditional knowledge meets Monitoring Science: the introduction of a workshop on climate adaptation

Although farmers have realized the importance of restoring traditional agricultural laws, they suffer from not knowing where to start and worried that it will take a long time and huge cost to explore on their own. Therefore, the top priority of the Montado adjustment plan is to understand the impact and impact of climate change.

With the support of environmental science, environmental monitoring experts and technology, ADPM selected 12 pilot small and medium-sized farms from areas in Portugal and Spain that still have some Montado, and investigated the climate and extreme situation, location, temperature, precipitation and hydrology, soil and microorganisms, ecological diversity, etc., and interviewed farm history, crops, climate impacts and livelihood conditions.