Causes and Solutions of low Fruit setting rate of Apple
Apple is one of the fresh fruits that people often take, because it contains a variety of minerals and vitamins, its "moisture" is easy for the body to digest and absorb, and has the practical effect of whitening and moisturizing skin, so it is loved by everyone. In recent years, with the continuous increase of the total area of apple planting, the fruit setting rate of apple has dropped sharply, and many growers have a headache. Then why is the fruit setting rate of apples low? How to solve the problem? Next, let's take a look at it with the web editor.
1. Because of the low fruit setting rate of apples
1. The elements of the variety itself
The results of different apple varieties are quite different, so the key is related to flowering and pollination. Compared with red Fuji apple varieties with large total planting area, Grand Marshal varieties and Qin Guan are very easy to flower. The difference of mother branches can also cause great differences in fruit setting rate. For example, varieties such as Jin Shuai are mainly long and medium mother branches, while varieties such as Xinhua and Red Fuji apples are mainly short mother branches and Liao Fu are very easy to produce axillary buds, while scientific research emphasizes that varieties dominated by short mother branches and with axillary bud fruiting habits usually have a higher fruit setting rate.
2. External climatic and environmental factors
In the first spring, ultra-low temperature led to different levels of freezing in apple receptacle and ovary, so that the pistil column of blooming flowers was frozen to death, unable to combine sperm and eggs, such as the ultra-low temperature damage in the first and middle of April 2018. The second is the wind and sand temperature in some planting areas, resulting in lower mucus during flowering and poor pollination, such as Jingning apple planting area in Gansu province. In the end, it is the drought temperature, although people increase the production of apple spring shoots to drain water moderately during the growing period, but if they are not properly manipulated, resulting in excessive drought, it will lead to poor spring shoot growth and development, insufficient growth, early machines and poor flower bud differentiation.
3. The storage of nutrients in trees is not enough.
The nutrients needed for apple flower bud differentiation come from tree storage nutrients, which are usually digested, absorbed and stored by the main stem when growers use base fertilizer in autumn. therefore, if growers do not do in time in the case of the use of base fertilizer, it will cause poor quality of peach buds next year, and the fruit setting rate will be greatly reduced in the middle and later stages.
4. Pollination trees are not equipped enough.
Most apple varieties are self-flowering unstable or the seed setting rate is relatively low. In the case of the establishment of a garden, more than 20% of pollination trees should be equipped to assist them in the combination of pollination and eggs. If there are too few pollination trees in the plantation or no pollination trees are preserved after high replacement, artificial pollination is not selected to assist them in the flowering stage, the fruit setting rate will be low in the middle and later stages due to poor pollination and insemination.
Second, the solution to the low fruit setting rate of Apple.
1. Rational flow of pollination trees
In the case of the establishment of the garden, equipped with abundant pollination trees is an important countermeasure to improve the fruit setting rate of apples. In general, the proportion of main varieties and pollination trees is 3:1-5:1, plum blossom pile type and row-by-row type are more appropriate, it must be noted that the interval between pollination trees and main varieties should be less than 50 meters. For the plantations with high grafting and replacement, 2 branches per plant can be selected as pollination tree techniques. In addition, when equipped with pollination trees, it must be noted that the flowering period of pollination trees should be met with the main varieties, with a large amount of bee pollen and a long flowering period.
2. Artificial assisted pollination
At the present stage, artificial pollination is mainly artificial pollination and bee release at flowering stage, in which the technological process of artificial pollination is relatively complicated. Workers must use budding bell flowers or flowers that have just opened to the outside world after the dew dries in the morning, and bee pollen will be used in the room later. later, pollination will be carried out on the pillars of the flowers the next day after the apple flowers are in full bloom in order to increase the fruit setting rate. For the release of bees at the flowering stage, it is mainly based on the combination of pollination and eggs according to the bee pollen, which is also a method with the largest number of artificial pollination in the plantation at the present stage. At this stage, the key points are honey peak pollination and wall bee pollination. Honey peak pollination usually has to place a beehive every 5-10 mu, so it depends on that the key concentration of the theme activity category of honey peak is about 50 meters. Relative to honey peak, wall wasp not only has the advantage of convenient feeding, but also has a large amount of exercise. Scientific research emphasizes that its amount of exercise is 80 times that of honey peak. 50-80 wall wasps per mu of apple orchard can help to pollinate sperm and eggs, and the actual effect is better.
3. Poor weather temperature resistance
In view of the ultra-low temperature in spring, we should habitually listen to the weather forecast and make full preparations before the ultra-low temperature strikes.
According to the countermeasures of road surface water injection and tree sprinkling, ① adjusts the average temperature near the road surface, alleviates the decrease of tree density, and delays the flowering time to prevent cold.
According to brassinolide and other green plant naphthylacetic acid, ② can improve the nutritional composition of the tree, alleviate the damage of ultra-low temperature to flowers, and facilitate the increase of fruit setting rate.
③ in the plantation can be described as using straw, weeds, broken leaves and other fire to smoke, drive away the cool air of the plantation, but now the environmental protection control is more strict, growers are not recommended to choose, in order to reduce unnecessary inconvenience.
In view of wind and sand and other poor temperatures, shelterbelts can be planted around the plantation to prevent; for drought, moderate water and moisture can be done, but do not pay attention to too much, otherwise it is very easy to cause steep spring shoots.
4. Balanced fertilization and soil improvement.
Apple trees should use all types of base fertilizer in autumn, and high efficiency organic fertilizer, strong compound fertilizer and medium nutrient element chemical fertilizer must be used. 3500-5005kg organic fertilizer per mu of peach trees should be applied in high yield period, and radial furrow application should be selected. In the case of fertilization, base fertilizer is dominant in spring and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in summer, so rotary tillage is suitable for shallow application. The nutrient elements should not be used with base fertilizer, or the leaves should be sprayed immediately during the growing period of peach trees according to the growth and development of peaches. In addition, according to the technology of growing grass in the plantation, we can improve the composition of soil organic matter, improve the soil structure, and cultivate the healthy fruit type based on the promotion of soil organic matter.
5. Countermeasures at other levels
According to the pruning method of scientific research, construct a tree type with excellent natural ventilation and light transmittance, cultivate strong mother branches, and cultivate strong trees according to the prevention of early withered leaf disease, branch ring disease, bud worm, planthopper and other diseases harmful to flower bud differentiation; according to scientific research, reduce the consumption of failed nutrients, centralize nutrients to produce sufficient and round buds, and improve the efficiency of fruit setting.
Above is the reason and solutions for the low apple fruit setting rate, there are many reasons for the low apple fruit setting rate, growers should innovate management, analyze the actual reasons according to the specific situation, and deal with them immediately. It is expected that the above method can be of some help to apple growers.