What are the problems in the maintenance of family flowers?
What are the problems in the maintenance of family flowers?
If you want to grow flowers, you must first master the ecological habits of flowers, and master the light, water, fertilizer, temperature, humidity and pest control needed to adjust the growth of family flowers. Solve some common problems that often occur in the process of flower cultivation.
Most families can't reach the humidity of the greenhouse, while most native tropical plants prefer a humid environment. In the greenhouse, flowers can receive sunlight through the shade net all day, so that they do not accept direct sunlight, while in the home, there is often insufficient light, or sunlight exposure. Many flowers like the semi-overcast environment, but the sun is too weak in winter, so flowers can fully accept the sun. The suitable growth temperature of most flowers is between 15 ℃ and 20 ℃. If the temperature is too high, the flowers bloom quickly and it is easy to cause problems.
Regular fertilization and moderate watering are carried out in greenhouses, and compound fertilizers suitable for all growth stages are needed, while in families, flowers are often burned out due to lack of horticultural knowledge, or malnutrition caused by non-fertilization, or excessive fertilization at one time. In particular, it should be noted that no fertilization or a small amount of compound fertilizer can be applied at flowering stage, and "hypertrophy" is disadvantageous to flowering.
Flowers like neutral or acid soil, if the tap water is alkaline, long-term watering will make the soil alkali, but also affect the quality of flowers. If the viscous weight of the soil is impervious, it will also affect the respiration of the roots, and even rot the roots. Basically master watering to see wet and dry, small evaporation in winter, do not water too often, too much water is easy to rot roots, before watering, you must use your hands to touch the basin soil, so you can grasp the degree of dryness and wetness of the soil and avoid blind watering.
Most flowers like the environment with high air humidity, so spray more water around the flowers in order to increase the air humidity. Try to keep flowers in sunny and well-ventilated places, so as to avoid the occurrence of diseases and insect pests. The temperature of the room had better not be lower than 5 ℃, nor more than 25 ℃. Large water, low air humidity and high temperature are often the main factors causing problems with flowers.
1. Daily management
For indoor flowers, the best temperature is the suitable temperature for people to live. Generally speaking, the temperature between 15 and 25 ℃ is the best temperature for indoor flower growth. Accidents in this temperature range will lead to flower growth problems.
Compared with outdoor and greenhouse, indoor lighting conditions are not very ideal, and most of them are mainly scattered light. different lighting conditions have a great impact on the choice of indoor flowers: in places with sufficient light, you can try to put some plants that require high light, such as cactus, leaf flower and mulberry, etc., and some banyan trees, violets, orchids and other plants can be arranged in places with direct light. Evergreen, June snow, green apple, and other plants can be placed in places where there is light but not for a long time. Semi-shady places are suitable for placing plants such as thousand-year-old wood, tiger skin orchid, star anise gold plate and so on. It is suitable to prevent shade-loving plants such as one-leaf orchid and reticulate grass in a cool place.
(3) Air humidity
Air humidity is also the main factor affecting the growth of indoor flowers. In the north, where there is little rain and drought and heating in winter, the air humidity is relatively low, and the growth of leafy plants originating in the warm tropics is restricted. Similarly, for the warm and humid environment in the south, the roots of some flowers in the north are in ultra-humid soil for a long time, which can easily lead to plant disease.
The watering time of indoor plants should be comprehensively considered according to plant varieties, soil air humidity and surrounding environment. When watering, we should adhere to the basic principle of "no dry, no watering, watering thoroughly". Do not irrigate waist water, that is, the upper half of the basin is wet, the lower half of the basin is dry. Plants with strong light or air conditioning near the window or in the west should be watered more, and plants with succulent oars and persistent roots should be watered less. Water more in summer and autumn and less in winter and spring.
Through pruning, we can not only evenly distribute flower branches, save nutrients, adjust plant potential and control overgrowth, so as to make flowers neat and graceful, but more importantly, it is conducive to more flowering. Pruning is mainly divided into the following two forms: dormant pruning and growing pruning. According to different flower varieties, the time of pruning is also different. Flowers that bloom in spring are generally not pruned in winter, nor should they be pruned before sprouting in early spring, because the flower buds are mostly on the branches of the previous year and should be pruned within 1-2 weeks after flowering. But the flowers that bloomed on the branches of the province in that year should be pruned during the winter dormancy period, in order to promote them to produce more new buds and grow new branches, so as to increase the number of flowers.
For indoor flowers, growth is not the goal, as long as there are no yellow leaves and variegated leaves, do not need to add a lot of fertilizer. On the contrary, family flower cultivation is often prone to flower growth problems caused by excessive topdressing. It is quite right that once people see the poor growth of flowers, they apply fertilizer blindly, which leads to the death of flowers. There are many reasons why the leaves are withered and yellow, and improper fertilization is one of them. Usually, there are three most important fertilization times for indoor flowers: ① applies appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer in spring, the main purpose is to promote the growth of branches and leaves, commonly used fertilizers are ammonium sulfate, bean cake and urea; ② applies phosphate fertilizer in summer; ③ applies a certain amount of potassium fertilizer in autumn.
two。 Control and management of common diseases and insect pests
Physiological diseases and infectious diseases are common diseases of flowers. The causes of physiological diseases are mostly caused by environmental factors, which are mainly manifested in that flowers do not adapt to environmental factors, and physiological disorders lead to pathological changes. This kind of disease usually does not need drug treatment, and can be alleviated by changing environmental factors (light, humidity, moisture, temperature, etc.). Infectious diseases can be subdivided into many types. the diseases caused by virus infection caused by tiny parasites are called viral diseases. this kind of virus can accumulate in flower seeds or flower soil and survive the winter. effective treatment methods include pulling out diseased plants, burning soil and spraying drugs. Common bacterial pests are: ① red spider: usually in a high-temperature and dry environment (such as indoor sunny window, etc.) occur more often, but also reproduce quickly. It is mostly born on the leaves to absorb juice, making the leaves yellow-white spots, and then gray-white, the leaves lose their luster, so that the leaves scorch or fall off.
Prevention and control methods: 0.5% veratrine soluble solution 300 times 500 times or 25g/L bifenthrin EC 500 times for spray control. ② aphids: mainly absorb juice from new buds and leaves, often causing plant leaves to deform, wrinkle and curl; at the same time, it can spread virus and secretions cause soot disease. Control methods: recommend low-toxic environmental protection agents, such as acetamiprid and imidacloprid 10g water-soluble 7~10kg per pouch, spray the growing points of plants and the gathering places of pests with a small spray can, and increase or decrease the dosage according to the number of pests. ③ scale: mainly parasitic in clusters on young stems and leaves of plants, inserting sucking mouthparts into plant tissues to absorb sap. The wound is easily infected with diseases and can induce soot disease. Prevention and control methods: our most common household type of low-toxic agents, you can use Huashen 1 Vera 200 mixed with water, after the first spray can be 5-7 days after another spray can be very effective and more thorough control of scale insects.