Cultivation of Coprinus comatus with waste Edible Fungi
Coprinus comatus is a kind of rare edible fungus with both food and medicine, rich nutrition and unique flavor, which has been widely cultivated all over the country. In order to reuse the waste (polluted material) of edible mushroom production based on cottonseed shell and better develop the production of Coprinus comatus in our county, according to the reality of this county, after several years of cultivation experiments, a set of production technology of cultivating Coprinus comatus with waste materials of edible fungi was explored, and good economic and social benefits were obtained. The relevant technical reports are as follows:
The raw materials are prepared to take off the waste mushroom materials such as Pleurotus ostreatus (Flammulina velutipes, straw mushroom) and other edible mushrooms, take off the bag and break the bag material, dry it and set aside.
The seasonal arrangement of cultivation of Coprinus comatus should avoid the hot and dry summer days, and it is better to cultivate in spring and autumn. The period of planting mushrooms in spring should be arranged from March to May, and one principle must be grasped in spring planting: only when the mycelium is full can it pass the summer safely. The mushroom season in autumn is usually arranged from September to November. According to the temperature at the time of mushroom production, the backward calculation method is generally used to determine the time of making bacteria bag, and the general time of producing bacteria is about 40 days.
Coprinus comatus can be divided into tufted species and solitary species. The individual of single species is hypertrophy, the weight of single mushroom is 30ml 150g, but the yield is slightly lower, the individual of tufted mushroom is smaller, the weight of single mushroom is 10mur20g, and the total yield is higher than that of single species. At present, we focus on popularizing tufted species.
There are a variety of cultivation methods of Coprinus comatus in cultivation methods and places, but they are planted in clinker bags, unbagged and covered with soil, with good quality, high and stable yield and no risk. The vegetables were cultivated in greenhouse, covered with 1 layer of film, and then covered with 2 layers of sunshade film or 1 layer of straw bag.
The waste and contaminated materials of cultivated edible mushrooms such as Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus ostreatus are ideal culture materials for cultivating Coprinus comatus. Using these as main materials and appropriate auxiliary materials for cultivation can not only increase the yield, but also reduce the cost. The following formulations can be used for reference, depending on the actual situation.
1. 25% cottonseed hull, 60% Pleurotus ostreatus waste, 10% wheat bran, 3% corn meal, 0.1% sugar, 1% gypsum, 2% lime, 20% cottonseed shell, 57% straw mushroom waste, 10% wheat bran, 10% rice bran, 1% gypsum, 2% lime, 20% cottonseed shell, 56% Flammulina velutipes waste, 5% wheat bran, 15% rice bran, 3% lime and 1% gypsum.
Bacterial bag production: choose the formula, weigh the material, mix well, mix lime into lime water, control the water content at 60% 70%, and then bag it. There are two ways of bagging by hand and by machine. the specification of the bag is generally 17 × 33 0.04cm 38 ×, the height of the bag material is about 15cm, the wet weight is about 800g, and the mouth of the bag can be covered with cotton plug, folding mouth or rope. The loading should be loose and tight properly, too loose, the mycelium is easy to aging, insufficient water content, affecting mushroom production and yield, too tight, anoxia in the bacteria bag, slow bacteria. After bagging, it should be sterilized on the same day and sterilized under normal pressure. After the temperature reaches 100℃, it can be maintained for 10 hours and stuffy for 4 hours before coming out of the pot. Sterilized bags should be kept in a sterilized room for cooling. After cooling, inoculation in the inoculation box or inoculation room should be carried out in accordance with aseptic operating procedures.
After receiving the bacteria, the bag material should be handled gently and placed indoors. The temperature of the culture room should be controlled at about 25 ℃ and the humidity should be below 80%. The number of layers of the stacking cylinder depends on the air temperature. If the temperature is high, the number of layers is low, otherwise, it is high. No matter whether it is high or low, it must be noted that the internal temperature of the bacterial bag is higher than the external temperature. 2 ℃. For this reason, it is necessary to observe frequently in the stage of bacteria culture to prevent bacteria from burning, and at the same time to strengthen ventilation. If the bacterial bag is stuck in the mouth, when the mycelium is more than 1 to 3 of the material, it is necessary to appropriately loosen the mouth of the bag to increase oxygen to promote the growth of the mycelium. Generally about 40 days mycelium can grow full bag, then the temperature can be reduced to 20 ℃ below stacking, in order to rejuvenate mycelium, storage nutrition, ready to take off the bag to produce mushroom.
The mushroom of Coprinus comatus with unbagged and covered soil is different from other edible fungi. Only by covering soil can the bag of Coprinus comatus with penetrating bacteria obtain high quality and high yield. the soil not only provides water and nutrition, but also plays the role of heat preservation and temperature regulation. moreover, it can stimulate the production of Coprinus comatus through a large number of beneficial microorganisms, and the quality of the soil directly affects the yield of Coprinus comatus. It is best to choose soil with a certain amount of humus and good permeability as covering materials, such as paddy soil, vegetable soil and so on. The soil was sprayed with 2% formaldehyde solution for more than 12 hours, then the film was exposed for 8 hours, and 2% quicklime water was used to adjust the pH value and soil moisture. When covering the soil, open the box in the greenhouse to make the border, 80-100cm wide, 15-20cm deep, unlimited length, the border surface into the shape of the tortoise back. After taking off the bag, the bacterial bag is placed in the border. In order to prevent the occurrence of miscellaneous bacteria and deformed mushrooms, 5% lime water can be used to spray the border bed and the surrounding soil. During the discharge of the bag, a gap of 3-5cm is left between the bag and the bag, and then fill the gap with sterilized soil, and then cover the thick soil layer of 3-5cm after watering through.
Mushroom management: cover the soil with plastic film and keep the humidity 85%. In order to meet this humidity requirement, you should often spray space mist water on the border bed when there is no small mushroom bud, increase the humidity in the shed, and keep the soil moist with the covering soil layer but not stick to the hand. lift the film to adjust the air once a day. Generally, the mycelium can penetrate the overlying soil layer in 15 days, and the surface is covered with "white hair". When the mycelium grows all over the topsoil, the film should be removed and the mushroom water should be sprayed every 3 days to stimulate and promote the kink of the hyphae and differentiate the primordia of the fruiting body. During the period of spraying mushroom water, large ventilation was carried out at the same time to reduce soil surface moisture and inhibit mycelium growth, and primordia began to appear in about a week. Once the mushroom bud grows, it can not be directly watered or sprayed on the border, otherwise the mushroom bud is very easy to rot to death. There should be some scattered light in the fruiting body growth stage, and the greenhouse temperature should be controlled at 15 ℃ 25 ℃. When the air temperature exceeds 25 ℃, it is necessary to cover thick mulch and ditch irrigation in time to cool down. The aerobic Coprinus comatus fruit body has a large oxygen demand, so the cultivation and management should often lift the film and ventilation in the right amount in the morning and evening, so as to maintain ventilation during mushroom emergence. During ventilation, attention should be paid to avoid strong wind blowing directly into the border bed, so as not to affect the color and quality of mushrooms, and the ventilation rate can be flexibly controlled according to the amount of mushrooms.
Pest control Coprinus comatus grows in high humidity environment, and there are many diseases and insect pests. The main pests are mites, mushroom flies, mushroom mosquitoes, ground tigers, nematodes and so on. Once pests are found in the mushroom stage, cypermethrin or cypermethrin should be sprayed once a day for 3 days. The main diseases are chicken claw fungus, green mold, umbrella fungus and weeds, and the most serious harm is chicken claw fungus, which generally occurs in the middle and later stage of mushroom emergence stage. Chicken claw fungus not only consumes nutrients in culture materials, but also pollutes the soil surface, affecting the normal growth of Coprinus comatus. After the occurrence of chicken claw fungus, the yield decreased seriously, or even no harvest in the later stage. Once the chicken claw fungus occurs on the bed surface, it should be removed in time with the culture material below, put it in a plastic bag and take it out of the shed for deep burial, and the part where the "chicken claw fungus" occurs is sprinkled with raw lime powder. 50% carbendazim 700ml 800 times liquid can be used for chemical control. The prevention and control method of Umbrella is to expose the culture material when proportioning, mix the material with 0.2% carbendazim and spray with 5% lime water, which can kill the spores, pull out the spores immediately after the occurrence of the umbrella, prevent it from spreading, or spray it with 5% lime water to inhibit its growth. In addition, the replacement of new varieties or new cultivation sites can also effectively prevent or reduce the occurrence of diseases, especially the above two kinds of miscellaneous bacteria.
Harvesting and postharvest management of Coprinus comatus generally takes 10 days from small mushroom bud to maturity, with high temperature, fast ripening, low temperature and slow ripening. When the fruiting body grows to medium well, that is to say, the bacterial ring on the edge of the mushroom cap has just begun to loose, and there is no anti-curly scale on the cap, so it should be harvested in time. At this time, the mushroom quality is good, the yield is high, the commodity performance is good, and the whole cluster should be picked when picking. After harvest, clean the mushroom bed and fill the soil in time. After stopping water and raising bacteria for 4 days, the mycelium was watered again to make the hyphae have time to accumulate nutrients, improve the quality of Coprinus comatus and achieve the effect of tide concentration. It is generally harvested with 5 murals and 6 tides, and the biological efficiency can reach more than 100%.