What are the main diseases of edible fungi? Control measures of main Diseases of Edible Fungi
Edible fungus is a kind of vegetable that we often eat in our daily life. It is very nutritious and deeply loved by people. In the process of planting edible fungi, some common diseases endanger the normal growth of edible fungi. This paper will introduce the prevention and control measures of the main diseases of edible fungi.
Trichoderma. Trichoderma, commonly known as green mold, can harm almost all edible fungi. Its damage to edible fungi is as follows: (1) contaminated culture materials compete with edible fungi for nutrition and space; (2) secreting mycin to kill and kill the host; (3) the hyphae of Trichoderma intertwined and cut off the host hyphae when it came into contact with the host hyphae. Prevention and control: carry out comprehensive prevention and control work. (1) the culture room and cultivation place should be kept at a low temperature, the air relative humidity should be controlled at about 85%, and the air should be kept clean and well ventilated; (2) once Trichoderma damage occurs, it is necessary to immediately ventilate and reduce humidity and the initial stage of bacterial tube infection. 2% aldehyde solution or 30% 5% carbonic acid injection can be used to inhibit the expansion of Trichoderma. Some of the infected mature bacterial tubes can dig out the contaminated parts, sprinkle lime powder or stone-sulfur mixture or Bordeaux solution on the treated parts, and also use fungicides such as carbendazim, Baogong, methyl topiramate and so on. For example, 50% carbendazim 1000 can prevent the occurrence of Trichoderma, but it is not suitable to use carbendazim on hericium Erinaceus, fungus and Tremella fuciformis.
Alternaria. Streptomyces, commonly known as powdery mildew and red bread mildew, is a common miscellaneous bacteria in the production of edible fungi, which can pollute all edible fungi. It is a tenacious and fast-growing aerial mold. After the culture material is contaminated, it quickly forms an orange or pink mildew layer on the material surface. Prevention and treatment: try to avoid muggy, humid summer high temperature period for production, pay attention to environmental hygiene. Once the orange-red mass of conidia appears, carefully wrap it with a wet cloth or wet paper, soak it in the liquid or bury it deeply, do not spray the bacteria directly with a sprayer, lest the spores fly away; you can also drop an appropriate amount of formaldehyde, kerosene or diesel oil in time, and then wrap it with film, which can cause mold erosion and death. If the bacteria are injured in the later stage, the damaged bacteria bag can be buried in the soil with a depth of 30-40 cm. After anoxic treatment for 10-20 days, the disease can be reduced and mushrooms can be produced. Fungicides such as carbendazim and Shibaogong can control the growth of Alternaria.
Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus is commonly known as yellow mold, green mold, black mold and so on. There are many kinds of Aspergillus. The colony of Aspergillus Niger is black and loose fruit; Aspergillus flavus is yellow, yellowish green, and then brownish green; Aspergillus gray-green is gray-green after the first white; Penicillium, its colony is grayish green, yellowish green or blue powdery mold layer. Aspergillus and Penicillium are common miscellaneous bacteria. They compete with edible fungi for nutrition and water, and secrete mycin to inhibit the production of edible fungi. Prevention and treatment: strengthen the ventilation of the culture room, reduce the temperature, reduce the air relative humidity, can reduce the harm, local occurrence can be washed with 5% Mui 10% lime water, other prevention and control methods can refer to Trichoderma control.